Research – Enforcement

Research – Enforcement


Do Alcohol Compliance Checks Decrease Underage Sales at Neighboring Establishments?

J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2013 Nov; 74(6): 852-858.
Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. This study examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. Research findings confirmed the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

Current use of underage alcohol compliance checks by enforcement agencies in the United States

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jun; 38(6):1712-9. doi: 10.1111/acer.12397. Epub 2014 Apr 9.
Compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agents can significantly reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales to underage individuals, but these checks need to be conducted using optimal methods to maintain effectiveness. Researchers conducted a national survey of local and state enforcement agencies from 2010 to 2011 to assess: (i) how many agencies are currently conducting underage alcohol compliance checks, (ii) how many agencies that conduct compliance checks use optimal methods-including checking all establishments in the jurisdiction, conducting checks at least 3 to 4 times per year, conducting follow-up checks within 3 months, and penalizing the licensee (not only the server/clerk) for failing a compliance check, and (iii) characteristics of the agencies that conduct compliance checks. Just over one-third of local law enforcement agencies and over two-thirds of state agencies reported conducting compliance checks. However, only a small percentage of the agencies (4 to 6%) reported using all of the optimal methods to maximize effectiveness of these compliance checks. Continued effort is needed to increase the number of local and state agencies conducting compliance checks using optimal methods to reduce youth access to alcohol.

The Effects of Adolescent Development on Policing

This online brief is designed to help law enforcement who interact with youth in the field to better understand normal adolescent development and behavior. The brief provides an overview of adolescent behavioral development, recommendations for developmentally appropriate responses, strategies to improve interaction with youth, and examples of programs fostering positive youth development.

Reducing Youth Access to Alcohol: Findings from a Community-Based Randomized Trial

Am J Community Psychol. 2013 Mar; 51(1-2):264-77
Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se.

Relationships Between Local Enforcement, Alcohol Availability, Drinking Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use in 50 California Cities

J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2012 Jul; 73(4):657-65
Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents’ perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use, and perceived likelihood of getting in trouble with local police.

Status Report: Special Issue – alcohol -impaired driving

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Status Report. April 2, 2005; Volume 40, Number 4
During the 1980s and 1990s, important progress was made toward reducing serious crashes and deaths involving drivers under the influence of alcohol. According to a publication by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), worldwide progress has stalled and hasn’t revived. Making further progress will require new ways of thinking about existing countermeasures and incorporating new technology.

Party Patrols: Best Practice Guidelines for College Communities

Party patrol enforcement is intended to work via general deterrence aimed at potential party hosts. The purpose of this guide is to consolidate the experience that campus and community law enforcement agencies have gained in conducting party patrols across jurisdictions and share that information with agencies looking for more effective tools to help manage party-related problems. This guide covers six basic components that together will help maximize the chances of having success with party patrols.